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The results of years of labor by means of students from around the globe, The UNESCO common background of Africa displays how different peoples of Africa view their civilizations and exhibits the historic relationships among a number of the components of the continent. historic connections with different continents reveal Africa's contribution to the advance of human civilization. each one quantity is lavishly illustrated and includes a complete bibliography.

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Four, 14. five, 14. 6, 14. 7, 14. eight French Archaeological undertaking to the Sudan, three. nine, five. three Gardiner, A . H . , Egypt of the Pharaohs, Oxford collage Press, 1961, Intro. 2 Gast, M . , 20. 1 Graeco-Roman M u s e u m , Alexandria, 6. three, 6. eight, 6. nine, 7. three, 7. four Griffith Institute, Oxford, 1954, Intro. five, 2. nine Hintze, F . 1971a (see Bibliography) Kenet, F . L . , 2. five, 2. 6, 2. 7, 2. eight Khartoum M u s e u m , 10. four Louvre M u s e u m , 1. 19 Mastaba du Louvre, files Photographiques, Paris, three. 6, three. 7, three. eight Menil beginning, Paris, 6. 7, 6. nine, 7. three, 7. four Menil Hickey Robertson-Allard Pierson M u s e u m , Inv. , 1991, 7. five Metropolitan M u s e u m of artwork, N e w York, 2. 2, three. four, four. three, four. four, five. eight, five. nine, five. 10, five. eleven, five. 12 Ministry of tradition and knowledge of the Democratic Republic of Sudan, nine. 1, nine. 2, nine. three, nine. four, nine. five, nine. 6, nine. 7, nine. eight, nine. nine, nine. 10, nine. eleven Mokhtar, G . 2. three, five. 14, five. 15, 12. 7, 12. eight M u s e u m of Antiquity, Algiers, 17. four M u s e u m of good Arts, Boston, Intro. four, three. 1, 10. 1 Oriental Institute, college of Chicago, four. 2, eleven. 1. eleven. 2 Otonoz, five. 14 Pirenne, J. , Histoire de los angeles civilisation de FEgypte Ancienne, Vol. 1, Neuchâtel, Paris, 1961, 2. 1, three 1 , 3-5, 3-6a, b , three. 7, five. four, five . five , five. 6, five. 7 xv Acknowledgements for plates Polish excavations, 7. 1a, b , c Salama, P. , 19. nine, 19. eleven, 19. 12, 19. thirteen, 19. 14, 19. 15, 20. 1, 20. 2, 20. three, 20. four, 20. five tuition of Oriental and African experiences, London Shinnie, Professor W . S . , Meroe: A Civilisation of the Sudan, London, 1967, eleven. three, eleven. four, eleven. five (top left, centre, backside left) Staatliche M u s e u m , Berlin, three. four, eleven. eight Tripoli M u s e u m , 20. four Unesco/Alexis Vorontzoff, eight. 1 Unesco Courier (July 1977), Intro. 1 collage M u s e u m , Philadelphia, 1. four Warsaw nationwide M u s e u m , 12. 1, 12. 2, 12. three, 12. four, 12. five, 12. 6 Wessel, ok . , Koptische Kunst, Rechlinghausen, 1963, 7. 7 Worcester paintings M u s e u m , Massachusetts, eleven. three Yale college Press, 1965, four. 1 XVI Note on chronology it's been agreed to undertake the subsequent procedure for writing dates. with reference to prehistory, dates m a y be written in other ways. O n e w a y is via connection with the current period, that's, dates B P (before present), the reference 12 months being + 1950; all dates are adverse relating to + 1950. T h e wrong way is by means of connection with the start of the Christian period. Dates are represented on the subject of the Christian period through an easy + or - signal ahead of the date. W h e n pertaining to centuries, the phrases B C and A D are changed by way of 'before our period' and 'of our era'. S o m e examples are as follows: (i) 2300 B P = - 350 (Ü) 29OO BC = — 29OO advert 180O = + 180O (iii) fifth century BC = fifth century prior to our period third century A D = third century of our period xvii Introduction G. M O ok H T A R with the collaboration of), VERCOUTTER T h e current quantity of A normal historical past of Africa offers with that lengthy interval of the continent's background extending from the top of the Neolithic period, that's, from round the 8th millennium prior to our period, to the start of the 7th century of our period. That interval, which covers s o m e 9 thousand years of Africa's background, has been, now not with out a few hesitation, subdivided into 4 significant geographical zones: (i) the hall of the Nile, Egypt and Nubia (Chapters i to 12); (2) the Ethiopian highlands (Chapters thirteen to 16); (3) that a part of Africa usually later known as the Maghrib, and its Saharan hinterland (Chapters 17 to 20); (4) the remainder of Africa in addition to the African islands within the Indian Ocean (Chapters 21 to 29).

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